What's wrong with my expression to control label colors?

What's wrong with my expression to control label colors?

I am struggling to alter the label colours according to field values (as strings) in the attributes table.

In my mind what I want is:

If the string in column X = 'Proposed' Then label the point using the string in column Y, with color A

Else Label the point using the string in column Y, with color B End

I have tried a bit, but struggling with the syntax

case when "ownerenc" = 'Proposed' then (color_rgb(256,256,256)) else color_rgb(56,56,0) end

But I realise this is quite wrong! Many thanks for your suggestions.

The syntax is almost correct (see the note in the end), but you might be using it in the wrong place.

The correct way of doing it is like this.

  1. Label your layer using your "Column Y" field, in the example below that's field "codigo".
  2. go to the "text" sub-menu, color and click the data defined button;
  3. There choose the edit… option below Expression;

  1. Put the desired expression in the expression builder (in the example).

Note: The rgb() function will only accept values from 0 to 255 to the red, green and blue arguments.

KML conversion

Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML-based format for storing geographic data and associated content and is an official Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. KML is a common format for sharing geographic data with non-GIS users, as it can be easily delivered on the internet and viewed in a number of free applications. KML files have either a .kml or .kmz (for compressed or zipped KML files) file extension.

KML can be composed of point, line, polygon features, and raster imagery. KML can also contain related content such as graphics, pictures, attributes, and HTML, whereas datasets in ArcGIS are typically seen as separate and homogeneous elements (for example, point feature classes can only contain points rasters can only contain cells or pixels and not features). A single KML file can contain features of different types as well as imagery.

Using geoprocessing tools, you can convert a map layer to KML and convert KML to an ArcGIS geodatabase, so you can view, edit, and analyze the geographic data contained in any KML file. All of the features of the KML 2.0 and 2.1 specifications are supported. None of the new features in the KML 2.2 specification are currently supported, including time animation, photo overlays, and schema tags.

Epson XP-830

This file obtains and installs everything you need to use your Epson XP-830 wirelessly or with a wired connection.

  • Printer Driver v10.85
  • ICA Scanner Driver v5.8.6
  • Epson Easy Photo Scan
  • Epson Fax Utility
  • Epson Print CD
  • Epson Easy Photo Scan
  • Epson Event Manager
  • Epson Software Updater
  1. Download the file.
  2. Double-click the downloaded file to create a disk image on your desktop.
  3. Open the disk image.
  4. Double-click the installer icon to begin the installation.

macOS 10.14.x, macOS 10.13.x, macOS 10.12.x, Mac OS X 10.11.x, Mac OS X 10.10.x, Mac OS X 10.9.x, Mac OS X 10.8.x, Mac OS X 10.7.x

Newer drivers may be available directly from Apple for OS X 10.6 or later. After installing this file, please view our OS X Software Update Instructions page for details.


ICA Scanner Driver v5.8.9 for Image Capture

This file contains the ICA Scanner Driver v5.8.9 for Apple's Image Capture utility.

  1. Double-click to create a disk image on your desktop.
  2. Open the disk image.
  3. Double-click the installer icon to begin the installation.

macOS 11.x, macOS 10.15.x, macOS 10.14.x, macOS 10.13.x, macOS 10.12.x, Mac OS X 10.11.x, Mac OS X 10.10.x, Mac OS X 10.9.x, Mac OS X 10.8.x, Mac OS X 10.7.x, Mac OS X 10.6.x, Mac OS X 10.5.x

This file applies to numerous Epson products and may be compatible with operating systems that your model is not.

Printer Driver v10.85

This file contains the Epson Printer Driver v10.85 for your printer.

  1. Download the file.
  2. Double-click the downloaded file to create a disk image on your desktop.
  3. Open the disk image.
  4. Double-click the installer icon to begin the installation.

macOS 11.x, macOS 10.15.x, macOS 10.14.x, macOS 10.13.x, macOS 10.12.x, Mac OS X 10.11.x, Mac OS X 10.10.x, Mac OS X 10.9.x, Mac OS X 10.8.x, Mac OS X 10.7.x, Mac OS X 10.6.x, Mac OS X 10.5.x

Newer drivers may be available directly from Apple for OS X 10.6 or later. After installing this file, please view our OS X Software Update Instructions page for details.

Remote Print Driver v10.85

This file contains the Epson Remote Print Driver v10.85.

This remote printer driver allows you to print to an Epson email-enabled printer anywhere in the world right from your computer.

Note: Your printer must be connected to the Internet via a wireless (Wi-Fi) or wired (Ethernet) network and be registered to the Epson Connect service. For setup information, please see our Epson Connect Printer Setup for Macintosh page.

  1. Download the file.
  2. Double-click the downloaded file to create a disk image on your desktop.
  3. Open the disk image.
  4. Double-click the installer icon to begin the installation.

macOS 11.x, macOS 10.15.x, macOS 10.14.x, macOS 10.13.x, macOS 10.12.x, Mac OS X 10.11.x, Mac OS X 10.10.x, Mac OS X 10.9.x, Mac OS X 10.8.x, Mac OS X 10.7.x, Mac OS X 10.6.x

This file applies to numerous Epson products and may be compatible with operating systems that your model is not.


The QR code system was invented in 1994 by Masahiro Hara from the Japanese company Denso Wave. The initial design was influenced by the black and white pieces on a Go board. [5] Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacturing it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning. [6] QR codes are now used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile-phone users (termed mobile tagging). QR codes may be used to display text to the user, to open a webpage on the user's device, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), to connect to a wireless network, or to compose an email or text message. There are a great many QR code generators available as software or as online tools that are either free, or require a paid subscription. [7] The QR code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code. [8]

Adoption Edit

During the month of June 2011, 14 million American mobile users scanned a QR code or a barcode. Some 58% of those users scanned a QR or barcode from their homes, while 39% scanned from retail stores 53% of the 14 million users were men between the ages of 18 and 34. [9] QR code usage decreased to 9.76 million in 2018 but is expected to grow to a total of 11 million households by the end of 2020. [10]

There are several standards that cover the encoding of data as QR codes: [11]

  • October 1997 – AIM (Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility) International [12]
  • January 1999 – JIS X 0510
  • June 2000 – ISO/IEC 18004:2000 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – Bar code symbology – QR code (now withdrawn)
    Defines QR code models 1 and 2 symbols.
  • 1 September 2006 – ISO/IEC 18004:2006 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR code 2005 bar code symbology specification (now withdrawn) [13]
    Defines QR code 2005 symbols, an extension of QR code model 2. Does not specify how to read QR code model 1 symbols, or require this for compliance.
  • 1 February 2015 – ISO/IEC 18004:2015 Information – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR Code barcode symbology specification
    Renames the QR Code 2005 symbol to QR Code and adds clarification to some procedures and minor corrections.

At the application layer, there is some variation between most of the implementations. Japan's NTT DoCoMo has established de facto standards for the encoding of URLs, contact information, and several other data types. [14] The open-source "ZXing" project maintains a list of QR code data types. [15]

QR codes have become common in consumer advertising. Typically, a smartphone is used as a QR code scanner, displaying the code and converting it to some useful form (such as a standard URL for a website, thereby obviating the need for a user to type it into a web browser). QR code has become a focus of advertising strategy, since it provides a way to access a brand's website more quickly than by manually entering a URL. [16] [17] Beyond mere convenience to the consumer, the importance of this capability is that it increases the conversion rate: the chance that contact with the advertisement will convert to a sale. It coaxes interested prospects further down the conversion funnel with little delay or effort, bringing the viewer to the advertiser's website immediately, whereas a longer and more targeted sales pitch may lose the viewer's interest.

Although initially used to track parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes are used over a much wider range of applications. These include commercial tracking, entertainment and transport ticketing, product and loyalty marketing and in-store product labeling. Examples of marketing include where a company's discounted and percent discount can be captured using a QR code decoder which is a mobile app, or storing a company's information such as address and related information alongside its alpha-numeric text data as can be seen in Yellow Pages directory.

They can also be used in storing personal information for use by organizations. An example of this is Philippines National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) where NBI clearances now come with a QR code. Many of these applications target mobile-phone users (via mobile tagging). Users may receive text, add a vCard contact to their device, open a URL, or compose an e-mail or text message after scanning QR codes. They can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several pay or free QR code-generating sites or apps. Google had an API, now deprecated, to generate QR codes, [18] and apps for scanning QR codes can be found on nearly all smartphone devices. [19]

QR codes storing addresses and URLs may appear in magazines, on signs, on buses, on business cards, or on almost any object about which users might want information. Users with a camera phone equipped with the correct reader application can scan the image of the QR code to display text, contact information, connect to a wireless network, or open a web page in the telephone's browser. This act of linking from physical world objects is termed hardlinking or object hyperlinking. QR codes also may be linked to a location to track where a code has been scanned. Either the application that scans the QR code retrieves the geo information by using GPS and cell tower triangulation (aGPS) or the URL encoded in the QR code itself is associated with a location. In 2008, a Japanese stonemason announced plans to engrave QR codes on gravestones, allowing visitors to view information about the deceased, and family members to keep track of visits. [21] Psychologist Richard Wiseman was one of the first authors to include QR codes in a book, in Paranormality: Why We See What Isn't There (2011). [22] [ failed verification ]

QR codes have been incorporated into currency. In June 2011, The Royal Dutch Mint (Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt) issued the world's first official coin with a QR code to celebrate the centenary of its current building and premises. The coin can be scanned by a smartphone and originally linked to a special website with contents about the historical event and design of the coin. [23] In 2014, the Central Bank of Nigeria issued a 100-naira banknote to commemorate its centennial, the first banknote to incorporate a QR code in its design. When scanned with an internet-enabled mobile device, the code goes to a website which tells the centenary story of Nigeria. [24] In 2015, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation issued a 100-rubles note to commemorate the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. It contains a QR code into its design, and when scanned with an internet-enabled mobile device, the code goes to a website that details the historical and technical background of the commemorative note. In 2017, the Bank of Ghana issued a 5-cedis banknote to commemorate 60 years of Central Banking in Ghana, and contains a QR code in its design, which when scanned with an internet-enabled mobile device, that code goes to the official Bank of Ghana website.

Credit card functionality is under development. In September 2016, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) launched the eponymously named Bharat QR, a common QR code jointly developed by all the four major card payment companies - National Payments Corporation of India that runs RuPay cards along with MasterCard, Visa and American Express. It will also have the capability of accepting payments on the unified payments interface (UPI) platform. [25] [26]

Augmented reality Edit

QR codes are used in some augmented reality systems to determine the positions of objects in 3-dimensional space. [6]

Displaying multimedia contents Edit

Multimedia QR Codes are also used to direct users to specific multimedia contents (such as video, audio, images, documents, etc.).

Mobile operating systems Edit

QR codes can be used on various mobile device operating systems. iPhones running on iOS 11 and higher [27] and some Android devices can natively scan QR codes without downloading an external app. [28] The camera app is able to scan and display the kind of QR code (only on iPhone) along with the link (both on Android and iPhone). These devices support URL redirection, which allows QR codes to send metadata to existing applications on the device. Many paid or free apps are available with the ability to scan the codes and hard-link to an external URL.

Virtual stores Edit

QR codes have been used to establish "virtual stores", where a gallery of product information and QR codes is presented to the customer, e.g. on a train station wall. The customers scan the QR codes, and the products are delivered to their homes. This use started in South Korea, [29] and Argentina, [30] but is currently expanding globally. [31] Walmart, Procter & Gamble and Woolworths have already adopted the Virtual Store concept. [32]

QR code payment Edit

QR codes can be used to store bank account information or credit card information, or they can be specifically designed to work with particular payment provider applications. There are several trial applications of QR code payments across the world. [33] [34] In developing countries like China, [35] [36] India [37] and Bangladesh QR code payment is a very popular and convenient method of making payments. Since Alipay designed a QR code payment method in 2011, [38] mobile payment has been quickly adopted in China. As of 2018, around 83% of all payments were made via mobile payment. [39]

In November 2012, QR code payments were deployed on a larger scale in the Czech Republic when an open format for payment information exchange — a Short Payment Descriptor — was introduced and endorsed by the Czech Banking Association as the official local solution for QR payments. [40] [41] In 2013, the European Payment Council provided guidelines for the EPC QR code enabling SCT initiation within the Eurozone.

Website login Edit

QR codes can be used to log into websites: a QR code is shown on the login page on a computer screen, and when a registered user scans it with a verified smartphone, they will automatically be logged in. Authentication is performed by the smartphone which contacts the server. Google tested such a login method in January 2012. [42]

Restaurant ordering Edit

Fast serve restaurants can present a QR code near the front door allowing guests to view an online menu, or even redirect them to an online ordering website or app, allowing them to order or potentially pay for their meal without having to stand in line or use a cashier. QR codes can also link to daily or weekly specials that are not printed on the standardized menus. [43] At table serve restaurants, QR codes enable guests to order their meals without a waiter involved—the QR code contains the table number so servers know where to bring the food. [44] [45] This application has grown especially since the need for social distancing during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has prompted reduced contact between service staff and customers. [44]

Joining a Wi‑Fi network Edit

By specifying the SSID, encryption type, password/passphrase, and if the SSID is hidden or not, mobile device users can quickly scan and join networks without having to manually enter the data. [46] A MECARD-like format is supported by Android and iOS 11+. [47]

  • Common format: WIFI:S:<SSID>T:<WEP|WPA|blank>P:<PASSWORD>H:<true|false|blank>
  • Sample WIFI:S:MySSIDT:WPAP:MyPassW0rd

Funerary use Edit

A QR code can link to an obituary and can be placed on a headstone. In 2008, Ishinokoe in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan began to sell tombstones with QR codes produced by IT DeSign, where the code leads to a virtual grave site of the deceased. [48] [49] [50] Other companies, such as Wisconsin-based Interactive Headstones, have also begun implementing QR codes into tombstones. [51] In 2014, the Jewish Cemetery of La Paz in Uruguay began implementing QR codes for tombstones. [52]

TOTP use Edit

QR codes are also used in scanning TOTP secrets to generate time-based one-time passwords.

Video games Edit

Popular video games, such as Fez, The Talos Principle, and Watch Dogs, have incorporated QR codes as story and gameplay elements. [53] [54] Among Us has a QR code easter egg in the "Scan boarding pass" task in the MIRA HQ map. Mobile games such as Munzee use geolocation in combination with QR codes to create a game that is played in the real world by scanning QR stickers in physical locations. [55]

Loyalty programs Edit

QR Codes have been used by various retail outlets that have loyalty programs. Usually, these programs are in the form of an app that users can download onto their phone and comes with a feature to scan QR codes, which are found printed on the receipt received when making a purchase, allowing users to collect award points simply by scanning the code.

Counterfeit detection Edit

Serialised QR Codes have been used by brands [56] and governments [57] to let consumers, retailers and distributors verify the authenticity of the products and help with detecting counterfeit products, as part of a brand protection program. [58] However, the security level of a regular QR Code is limited since QR Codes printed on original products are easily reproduced on fake products, even though the analysis of data generated as a result of QR Code scanning can be used to detect counterfeiting and illicit activity. [59] A higher security level can be attained by embedding a digital watermark or copy detection pattern into the image of the QR Code. This makes the QR Code more secure against counterfeiting attempts, and fake products which contain a counterfeit QR Code can be detected by scanning the secure QR Code with a specific app (even though the QR Code message itself is valid). [60]

Product tracing Edit

Different studies have been made to assess the effectiveness of QR codes as a means of conveying labelling information and their use as part of a food traceability system. In, [61] it was found that when provided free access to a smartphone with QR Code scanning app, 52.6% of participants would use it to access labelling information. A study made in South Korea showed that consumers appreciate QR code used in food traceability system, as they provide detailed information about food, as well as information that helps them in their purchasing decision. [62] If QR Codes are serialised, consumers can access a web page showing the supply chain for each ingredient, as well as information specific to each related batch, including meat processors and manufacturers, which helps address the concerns they have about the origin of their food. [63]

COVID-19 pandemic Edit

After the COVID-19 pandemic began spreading, QR codes began to be used as a "touchless" system to display information, show menus, or provide updated consumer information, especially in the hospitality industry. Restaurants replaced paper or laminated plastic menus with QR code decals on the table, which opened an online version of the menu. This prevented the need to dispose of single-use paper menus, or institute cleaning and sanitizing procedures for permanent menus after each use. [64] Local television stations have also begun to utilize codes on local newscasts to allow viewers quicker access to stories or information involving the pandemic, including testing and immunization scheduling websites, or for links within stories mentioned in the newscasts overall.

In several Australian states patrons are required to scan QR codes at shops, clubs, supermarkets and other service and retail establishments on entry to assist contact tracing. Singapore, the United Kingdom and New Zealand used similar systems. [65]

Unlike the older, one-dimensional barcodes that were designed to be mechanically scanned by a narrow beam of light, a QR code is detected by a 2-dimensional digital image sensor and then digitally analyzed by a programmed processor. The processor locates the three distinctive squares at the corners of the QR code image, using a smaller square (or multiple squares) near the fourth corner to normalize the image for size, orientation, and angle of viewing. The small dots throughout the QR code are then converted to binary numbers and validated with an error-correcting algorithm.

Storage Edit

The amount of data that can be stored in the QR code symbol depends on the datatype (mode, or input character set), version (1, . 40, indicating the overall dimensions of the symbol, i.e. 4 × version number + 17 dots on each side), and error correction level. The maximum storage capacities occur for version 40 and error correction level L (low), denoted by 40-L: [8] [66]

Here are some sample QR code symbols:

Version 1 (21×21). Content: "Ver1"

Version 2 (25×25). Content: "Version 2"

Version 3 (29×29). Content: "Version 3 QR Code"

Version 4 (33×33). Content: "Version 4 QR Code, up to 50 char"

Version 10 (57×57). Content: "VERSION 10 QR CODE, UP TO 174 CHAR AT H LEVEL, WITH 57X57 MODULES AND PLENTY OF ERROR CORRECTION TO GO AROUND. NOTE THAT THERE ARE ADDITIONAL TRACKING BOXES" (actually encoded in all capital letters). ("Tracking boxes" are more commonly called alignment patterns.)

Version 25 (117×117) Content: 1,269 characters of ASCII text describing QR Codes

Error correction Edit

When discussing the Reed–Solomon code phase there is some risk for confusion, in that the QR ISO standard uses the term codeword for the elements of F 256 _<256>> , which respect to the Reed–Solomon code are symbols, whereas it uses the term block for what with respect to the Reed–Solomon code are the codewords. The number of data versus error correction bytes within each block depends on (i) the version (side length) of the QR symbol and (ii) the error correction level, of which there are four. The higher the error correction level, the less storage capacity. The following table lists the approximate error correction capability at each of the four levels:

Level L (Low) 7% of data bytes can be restored.
Level M (Medium) 15% of data bytes can be restored.
Level Q (Quartile) [67] 25% of data bytes can be restored.
Level H (High) 30% of data bytes can be restored.

In larger QR symbols, the message is broken up into several Reed–Solomon code blocks. The block size is chosen so that no attempt is made at correcting more than 15 errors per block this limits the complexity of the decoding algorithm. The code blocks are then interleaved together, making it less likely that localized damage to a QR symbol will overwhelm the capacity of any single block.

Due to error correction, it is possible to create artistic QR codes that still scan correctly, but contain intentional errors to make them more readable or attractive to the human eye, as well as to incorporate colors, logos, and other features into the QR code block. [68] [69]

It is also possible to design artistic QR codes without reducing the error correction capacity by manipulating the underlying mathematical constructs. [70] [71] Image processing algorithms are also used to reduce errors in QR-code. [72]

Encoding Edit

The format information records two things: the error correction level and the mask pattern used for the symbol. Masking is used to break up patterns in the data area that might confuse a scanner, such as large blank areas or misleading features that look like the locator marks. The mask patterns are defined on a grid that is repeated as necessary to cover the whole symbol. Modules corresponding to the dark areas of the mask are inverted. The format information is protected from errors with a BCH code, and two complete copies are included in each QR symbol. [4]

The message dataset is placed from right to left in a zigzag pattern, as shown below. In larger symbols, this is complicated by the presence of the alignment patterns and the use of multiple interleaved error-correction blocks.

Meaning of format information. In the above figure, the format information is protected by a (15,5) BCH code, which can correct up to 3 bit errors. The total length of the code is 15 bits, of which 5 are data bits (2 EC level + 3 mask pattern) and 10 are extra bits for error correction. The format mask for these 15 bits is: [101011001010101]. Note that we map the masked values directly to its meaning here.

Message placement within a QR symbol. The message is encoded using a (255,249) Reed Solomon code (shortened to (24,18) code by using "padding") which can correct up to 3 byte errors.

Larger symbol illustrating interleaved blocks. The message has 26 data bytes and is encoded using two Reed-Solomon code blocks. Each block is a (255,233) Reed Solomon code (shortened to (35,13) code), which can correct up to 11 byte errors in a single burst, containing 13 data bytes and 22 "parity" bytes appended to the data bytes. The two 35-byte Reed-Solomon code blocks are interleaved so it can correct up to 22 byte errors in a single burst (resulting in a total of 70 code bytes). The symbol achieves level H error correction

The general structure of a QR encoding is as a sequence of 4 bit indicators with payload length dependent on the indicator mode (e.g. byte encoding payload length is dependent on the first byte). [73]

  • Character Count Indicator depends on how many modules are in a QR code (Symbol Version).
  • ECI Assignment number Size:
    • 8 × 1 bits if ECI Assignment Bitstream starts with '0'
    • 8 × 2 bits if ECI Assignment Bitstream starts with '10'
    • 8 × 3 bits if ECI Assignment Bitstream starts with '110'

    Four-bit indicators are used to select the encoding mode and convey other information.

    Encoding modes
    Indicator Meaning
    0001 Numeric encoding (10 bits per 3 digits)
    0010 Alphanumeric encoding (11 bits per 2 characters)
    0100 Byte encoding (8 bits per character)
    1000 Kanji encoding (13 bits per character)
    0011 Structured append (used to split a message across multiple QR symbols)
    0111 Extended Channel Interpretation (select alternate character set or encoding)
    0101 FNC1 in first position (see Code 128 for more information)
    1001 FNC1 in second position
    0000 End of message (Terminator)

    Encoding modes can be mixed as needed within a QR symbol. (e.g., a url with a long string of alphanumeric characters )

    After every indicator that selects an encoding mode is a length field that tells how many characters are encoded in that mode. The number of bits in the length field depends on the encoding and the symbol version.

    Number of bits in a length field (Character Count Indicator)
    Encoding Ver. 1–9 10–26 27–40
    Numeric 10 12 14
    Alphanumeric 9 11 13
    Byte 8 16 16
    Kanji 8 10 12

    Alphanumeric encoding mode stores a message more compactly than the byte mode can, but cannot store lower-case letters and has only a limited selection of punctuation marks, which are sufficient for rudimentary web addresses. Two characters are coded in an 11-bit value by this formula:

    This has the exception that the last character in an alphanumeric string with an odd length is read as a 6-bit value instead.

    Alphanumeric character codes
    Code Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code Character
    00 0 09 9 18 I 27 R 36 Space
    01 1 10 A 19 J 28 S 37 $
    02 2 11 B 20 K 29 T 38 %
    03 3 12 C 21 L 30 U 39 *
    04 4 13 D 22 M 31 V 40 +
    05 5 14 E 23 N 32 W 41
    06 6 15 F 24 O 33 X 42 .
    07 7 16 G 25 P 34 Y 43 /
    08 8 17 H 26 Q 35 Z 44 :

    Decoding example Edit

    The following images offer more information about the QR code.

    Model 1 Edit

    Model 1 QR code is an older version of the specification. It is visually similar to the widely seen model 2 codes, but lacks alignment patterns. Differences are in the bottom right corner and in the midsections of the bottom and right edges are additional functional regions.

    Model 1 QR code functional regions

    Micro QR code Edit

    Micro QR code is a smaller version of the QR code standard for applications where symbol size is limited. There are four different versions (sizes) of Micro QR codes: the smallest is 11×11 modules the largest can hold 35 numeric characters. [74]

    Micro QR code functional regions

    IQR code Edit

    IQR Code is an alternative to existing QR codes developed by Denso Wave. IQR codes can be created in square or rectangular formations this is intended for situations where a rectangular barcode would otherwise be more appropriate, such as cylindrical objects. IQR codes can fit the same amount of information in 30% less space. There are 61 versions of square IQR codes, and 15 versions of rectangular codes. For squares, the minimum size is 9x9 modules rectangles have a minimum of 19x5 modules. IQR codes add error correction level S, which allows for 50% error correction. [75] IQR Codes have not yet been given an ISO specification, and only proprietary Denso Wave products can create or read IQR codes. [76]

    Secure QR code Edit

    Secure Quick Response (SQR) code is a QR code that contains a "private data" segment after the terminator instead of the specified filler bytes "ec 11". [77] This private data segment must be deciphered with an encryption key. This can be used to store private information and to manage company's internal information. [78]

    SQR codes have been developed by the FORUS Foundation to enable secure transactions, and published under a Creative Commons Licence. The SQR solution guarantees the integrity of the source data as well as the validity of the originating party. The payment instruction string is made up of the electronic instruction data from the scanned QR code appended with a SHA-2 cryptographic hash. The message digest can then be encrypted using the private key of the sender, which then creates a digital signature of the message. This signature validates the integrity of the data and the trustworthiness of the sender. This provides non-repudiation, confirming the identity of the sender, and that it has not been tampered with during transmission. By embedding the URL and all the variables required to perform shopping cart type e-commerce, bill payment and peer to peer payments, coupled with a digital certificate eliminates the possibility of spoofing, tampering, and man in the middle attacks. [79]

    Frame QR Edit

    Frame QR is a QR code with a "canvas area" that can be flexibly used. In the center of this code is the canvas area, where graphics, letters, and more can be flexibly arranged, making it possible to lay out the code without losing the design of illustrations, photos, etc. [80]

    HCC2D Edit

    Researchers have proposed a new High Capacity Colored 2-Dimensional (HCC2D) Code, which builds upon a QR code basis for preserving the QR robustness to distortions and uses colors for increasing data density (at this stage [ when? ] it is still in prototyping phase). The HCC2D code specification is described in details in Querini et al. (2014), [81] while techniques for color classification of HCC2D code cells are described in detail in Querini and Italiano (2014), [82] which is an extended version of Querini and Italiano (2013). [83]

    Introducing colors into QR codes requires addressing additional issues. In particular, during QR code reading only the brightness information is taken into account, while HCC2D codes have to cope with chromatic distortions during the decoding phase. In order to ensure adaptation to chromatic distortions which arise in each scanned code, HCC2D codes make use of an additional field: the Color Palette Pattern. This is because color cells of a Color Palette Pattern are supposed to be distorted in the same way as color cells of the Encoding Region. Replicated color palettes are used for training machine learning classifiers.

    JAB code Edit

    JAB code (Just Another Barcode) is a color 2D matrix symbology made of colorful square modules arranged in either square or rectangle grids developed by Fraunhofer Institute SIT (Secure Information Technology). [84]

    JAB code contains one primary symbol and optionally multiple secondary symbols. The primary symbol contains four finder patterns located at the corners of the symbol. [85] It uses either 4 or 8 colours [86] The 4 basic colours (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) are the 4 primary colours of the subtractive CMYK color model which is the most widely used system in industry for colour printing on a white base such as a paper. The other 4 colours (blue, red, green, white) are secondary colours of the CMYK model and originate as an equal mixture of the basic colours.

    The barcode is not subject to licensing and was submitted to ISO standardization as ISO 23634 expected to be approved at the beginning of 2021 [87] and finalized in 2022. [86] The software is open-source and published under the LGPL v2.1 license. [88] The specification is freely available. [85]

    Because the colour represents an additional (third) dimension to an otherwise two-dimensional matrix a JAB code can contain more information in the same area compared to common two-colour (black and white) codes (theoretically twice as much data for a 4 colour code and three times more for 8 colours assuming the same encoding algorithm). This may allow to store the entire message ("all data") in the barcode itself rather than just storing a partial data (abbreviated message) with a reference (such as a link) to a source somewhere else (a website) that contains the full message thus eliminating the need for an additional permanent and always available infrastructure beyond the printed barcode self. This may be used to digitally sign encrypted digital version of printed legal documents, contracts and certificates (diplomas, training), medical prescriptions or provide product authenticity assurance to increase protection against counterfeits. [86]

    The use of QR code technology is freely licensed as long as users follow the standards for QR Code documented with JIS or ISO. Non-standardized codes may require special licensing. [89]

    Denso Wave owns a number of patents on QR code technology, but has chosen to exercise them in a limited fashion. [89] In order to promote widespread usage of the technology Denso Wave chose to waive its rights to a key patent in its possession for standardized codes only. [11] In the US, the granted QR code patent is US 5726435 , and in Japan JP 2938338 , both of which have expired. The European Patent Office granted patent EP 0672994 to Denso Wave, which was then validated into French, UK, and German patents, all of which expired in March 2015. [90]

    The text QR Code itself is a registered trademark and wordmark of Denso Wave Incorporated. [91] In UK, the trademark is registered as E921775, the word "QR Code", with a filing date of 03/09/1998. [92] The UK version of the trademark is based on the Kabushiki Kaisha Denso (DENSO CORPORATION) trademark, filed as Trademark 000921775, the word "QR Code", on 03/09/1998 and registered on 6/12/1999 with the European Union OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market). [93] The U.S. Trademark for the word "QR Code" is Trademark 2435991 and was filed on 29 September 1998 with an amended registration date of 13 March 2001, assigned to Denso Corporation. [94]

    The only context in which common QR codes can carry executable data is the URL data type. These URLs may host JavaScript code, which can be used to exploit vulnerabilities in applications on the host system, such as the reader, the web browser or the image viewer, since a reader will typically send the data to the application associated with the data type used by the QR code.

    In the case of no software exploits, malicious QR codes combined with a permissive reader can still put a computer's contents and user's privacy at risk. This practice is known as "attagging", a portmanteau of "attack tagging". [95] They are easily created and can be affixed over legitimate QR codes. [96] On a smartphone, the reader's permissions may allow use of the camera, full Internet access, read/write contact data, GPS, read browser history, read/write local storage, and global system changes. [97] [98] [99]

    Risks include linking to dangerous web sites with browser exploits, enabling the microphone/camera/GPS, and then streaming those feeds to a remote server, analysis of sensitive data (passwords, files, contacts, transactions), [100] and sending email/SMS/IM messages or DDOS packets as part of a botnet, corrupting privacy settings, stealing identity, [101] and even containing malicious logic themselves such as JavaScript [102] or a virus. [103] [104] These actions could occur in the background while the user is only seeing the reader opening a seemingly harmless web page. [105] In Russia, a malicious QR code caused phones that scanned it to send premium texts at a fee of US$6 each. [95]

    You say your primary motivation in writing this book is to inspire compassion through scientific understanding. Can you explain the linkage?

    There's a much stronger link than people think. It’s about asking ourselves what does it mean to be a good scientist? Too often we think science is a methodology, a process. Our idea is that it's a way of being that enables you to step into uncertainty. And celebrating doubt, stepping into uncertainty, is fundamental to being compassionate.

    It's not so much that I'm doing research into compassion. I'm hoping that compassion comes out of the research, by making people part of the process of understanding their own perceptions. Perception underpins everything we think, do, believe, know, or love. Once you understand that, there are consequences like compassion, respect, creativity, choice, community.


    • Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
    • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
    • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
    • Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
    • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.


    • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
    • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
    • Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
    • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
    • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
    • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
    • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
    • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
    • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
    • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
    • Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
    • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.


    Before deleting an album, the user is asked to confirm the action.

    . we can deduce that this is not a success or error modal, but rather it is a confirmation modal, which implies a warning or caution color like yellow, not green or red, as success and error colors imply respectively. And since it is a confirmation modal, the wording should probably change to something like:

    Please confirm the deletion of this album:

    To further the usability of the confirmation modal, you can embolden the Confirm button to make it stand out just a bit more. And for those that have color blindness or reading issues, I typically put an icon matching what is being confirmed. In this case, a trash can seems to fit.

    When you add all that together, here is an example of what you get:


    People use tags to aid classification, mark ownership, note boundaries, and indicate online identity. Tags may take the form of words, images, or other identifying marks. An analogous example of tags in the physical world is museum object tagging. People were using textual keywords to classify information and objects long before computers. Computer based search algorithms made the use of such keywords a rapid way of exploring records.

    Tagging gained popularity due to the growth of social bookmarking, image sharing, and social networking websites. [2] These sites allow users to create and manage labels (or "tags") that categorize content using simple keywords. Websites that include tags often display collections of tags as tag clouds, [5] as do some desktop applications. [6] On websites that aggregate the tags of all users, an individual user's tags can be useful both to them and to the larger community of the website's users.

    Tagging systems have sometimes been classified into two kinds: top-down and bottom-up. [3] : 142 [4] : 24 Top-down taxonomies are created by an authorized group of designers (sometimes in the form of a controlled vocabulary), whereas bottom-up taxonomies (called folksonomies) are created by all users. [3] : 142 This definition of "top down" and "bottom up" should not be confused with the distinction between a single hierarchical tree structure (in which there is one correct way to classify each item) versus multiple non-hierarchical sets (in which there are multiple ways to classify an item) the structure of both top-down and bottom-up taxonomies may be either hierarchical, non-hierarchical, or a combination of both. [3] : 142–143 Some researchers and applications have experimented with combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical tagging to aid in information retrieval. [7] [8] [9] Others are combining top-down and bottom-up tagging, [10] including in some large library catalogs (OPACs) such as WorldCat. [11] [12] : 74 [13] [14]

    When tags or other taxonomies have further properties (or semantics) such as relationships and attributes, they constitute an ontology. [3] : 56–62

    Metadata tags as described in this article should not be confused with the use of the word "tag" in some software to refer to an automatically generated cross-reference examples of the latter are tags tables in Emacs [15] and smart tags in Microsoft Office. [16]

    The use of keywords as part of an identification and classification system long predates computers. Paper data storage devices, notably edge-notched cards, that permitted classification and sorting by multiple criteria were already in use prior to the twentieth century, and faceted classification has been used by libraries since the 1930s.

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Unix text editor Emacs offered a companion software program called Tags that could automatically build a table of cross-references called a tags table that Emacs could use to jump between a function call and that function's definition. [17] This use of the word "tag" did not refer to metadata tags, but was an early use of the word "tag" in software to refer to a word index.

    Online databases and early websites deployed keyword tags as a way for publishers to help users find content. In the early days of the World Wide Web, the keywords meta element was used by web designers to tell web search engines what the web page was about, but these keywords were only visible in a web page's source code and were not modifiable by users.

    In 1997, the collaborative portal "A Description of the Equator and Some ØtherLands" produced by documenta X, Germany, used the folksonomic term Tag for its co-authors and guest authors on its Upload page. [18] In "The Equator" the term Tag for user-input was described as an abstract literal or keyword to aid the user. However, users defined singular Tags, and did not share Tags at that point.

    In 2003, the social bookmarking website Delicious provided a way for its users to add "tags" to their bookmarks (as a way to help find them later) [2] : 162 Delicious also provided browseable aggregated views of the bookmarks of all users featuring a particular tag. [19] Within a couple of years, the photo sharing website Flickr allowed its users to add their own text tags to each of their pictures, constructing flexible and easy metadata that made the pictures highly searchable. [20] The success of Flickr and the influence of Delicious popularized the concept, [21] and other social software websites—such as YouTube, Technorati, and—also implemented tagging. [22] In 2005, the Atom web syndication standard provided a "category" element for inserting subject categories into web feeds, and in 2007 Tim Bray proposed a "tag" URN. [23]

    Within a blog Edit

    Many systems (and other web content management systems) allow authors to add free-form tags to a post, along with (or instead of) placing the post into a predetermined category. [5] For example, a post may display that it has been tagged with baseball and tickets . Each of those tags is usually a web link leading to a index page listing all of the posts associated with that tag. The blog may have a sidebar listing all the tags in use on that blog, with each tag leading to an index page. To reclassify a post, an author edits its list of tags. All connections between posts are automatically tracked and updated by the blog software there is no need to relocate the page within a complex hierarchy of categories.

    Within application software Edit

    Some desktop applications and web applications feature their own tagging systems, such as email tagging in Gmail and Mozilla Thunderbird, [12] : 73 bookmark tagging in Firefox, [24] audio tagging in iTunes or Winamp, and photo tagging in various applications. [25] Some of these applications display collections of tags as tag clouds. [6]

    Assigned to computer files Edit

    There are various systems for applying tags to the files in a computer's file system. In Apple's macOS, the operating system has allowed users to assign multiple arbitrary tags as extended file attributes to any file or folder ever since OS X 10.9 was released in 2013, [26] and before that time the open-source OpenMeta standard provided similar tagging functionality in macOS. [27] Several semantic file systems that implement tags are available for the Linux kernel, including Tagsistant. [28] Microsoft Windows allows users to set tags only on Microsoft Office documents and some kinds of picture files. [29]

    Cross-platform file tagging standards include Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP), an ISO standard for embedding metadata into popular image, video and document file formats, such as JPEG and PDF, without breaking their readability by applications that do not support XMP. [30] XMP largely supersedes the earlier IPTC Information Interchange Model. Exif is a standard that specifies the image and audio file formats used by digital cameras, including some metadata tags. [31] TagSpaces is an open-source cross-platform application for tagging files it inserts tags into the filename. [32]

    For an event Edit

    An official tag is a keyword adopted by events and conferences for participants to use in their web publications, such as blog entries, photos of the event, and presentation slides. [33] Search engines can then index them to make relevant materials related to the event searchable in a uniform way. In this case, the tag is part of a controlled vocabulary.

    In research Edit

    A researcher may work with a large collection of items (e.g. press quotes, a bibliography, images) in digital form. If he/she wishes to associate each with a small number of themes (e.g. to chapters of a book, or to sub-themes of the overall subject), then a group of tags for these themes can be attached to each of the items in the larger collection. [34] In this way, freeform classification allows the author to manage what would otherwise be unwieldy amounts of information. [35]

    Triple tags Edit

    A triple tag or machine tag uses a special syntax to define extra semantic information about the tag, making it easier or more meaningful for interpretation by a computer program. [36] Triple tags comprise three parts: a namespace, a predicate, and a value. For example, geo:long=50.123456 is a tag for the geographical longitude coordinate whose value is 50.123456. This triple structure is similar to the Resource Description Framework model for information.

    The triple tag format was first devised for geolicious in November 2004, [37] to map Delicious bookmarks, and gained wider acceptance after its adoption by Mappr and GeoBloggers to map Flickr photos. [38] In January 2007, Aaron Straup Cope at Flickr introduced the term machine tag as an alternative name for the triple tag, adding some questions and answers on purpose, syntax, and use. [39]

    Specialized metadata for geographical identification is known as geotagging machine tags are also used for other purposes, such as identifying photos taken at a specific event or naming species using binomial nomenclature. [40]

    Hashtags Edit

    A hashtag is a kind of metadata tag marked by the prefix # , sometimes known as a "hash" symbol. This form of tagging is used on microblogging and social networking services such as Twitter, Facebook, Google+, VK and Instagram. The hash is used to distinguish tag text, as distinct, from other text in the post.

    Knowledge tags Edit

    A knowledge tag is a type of meta-information that describes or defines some aspect of a piece of information (such as a document, digital image, database table, or web page). [41] Knowledge tags are more than traditional non-hierarchical keywords and terms they are a type of metadata that captures knowledge in the form of descriptions, categorizations, classifications, semantics, comments, notes, annotations, hyperdata, hyperlinks, or references that are collected in tag profiles (a kind of ontology). [41] These tag profiles reference an information resource that resides in a distributed, and often heterogeneous, storage repository. [41]

    Knowledge tags are part of a knowledge management discipline that leverages Enterprise 2.0 methodologies for users to capture insights, expertise, attributes, dependencies, or relationships associated with a data resource. [3] : 251 [42] Different kinds of knowledge can be captured in knowledge tags, including factual knowledge (that found in books and data), conceptual knowledge (found in perspectives and concepts), expectational knowledge (needed to make judgments and hypothesis), and methodological knowledge (derived from reasoning and strategies). [42] These forms of knowledge often exist outside the data itself and are derived from personal experience, insight, or expertise. Knowledge tags are considered an expansion of the information itself that adds additional value, context, and meaning to the information. Knowledge tags are valuable for preserving organizational intelligence that is often lost due to turnover, for sharing knowledge stored in the minds of individuals that is typically isolated and unharnessed by the organization, and for connecting knowledge that is often lost or disconnected from an information resource. [43]

    In a typical tagging system, there is no explicit information about the meaning or semantics of each tag, and a user can apply new tags to an item as easily as applying older tags. [2] Hierarchical classification systems can be slow to change, and are rooted in the culture and era that created them in contrast, the flexibility of tagging allows users to classify their collections of items in the ways that they find useful, but the personalized variety of terms can present challenges when searching and browsing.

    When users can freely choose tags (creating a folksonomy as opposed to selecting terms from a controlled vocabulary), the resulting metadata can include homonyms (the same tags used with different meanings) and synonyms (multiple tags for the same concept), which may lead to inappropriate connections between items and inefficient searches for information about a subject. [44] For example, the tag "orange" may refer to the fruit or the color, and items related to a version of the Linux kernel may be tagged "Linux", "kernel", "Penguin", "software", or a variety of other terms. Users can also choose tags that are different inflections of words (such as singular and plural), [45] which can contribute to navigation difficulties if the system does not include stemming of tags when searching or browsing. Larger-scale folksonomies address some of the problems of tagging, in that users of tagging systems tend to notice the current use of "tag terms" within these systems, and thus use existing tags in order to easily form connections to related items. In this way, folksonomies may collectively develop a partial set of tagging conventions.

    Complex system dynamics Edit

    Despite the apparent lack of control, research has shown that a simple form of shared vocabulary emerges in social bookmarking systems. Collaborative tagging exhibits a form of complex systems dynamics (or self-organizing dynamics). [46] Thus, even if no central controlled vocabulary constrains the actions of individual users, the distribution of tags converges over time to stable power law distributions. [46] Once such stable distributions form, simple folksonomic vocabularies can be extracted by examining the correlations that form between different tags. In addition, research has suggested that it is easier for machine learning algorithms to learn tag semantics when users tag "verbosely"—when they annotate resources with a wealth of freely associated, descriptive keywords. [47]

    Spamming Edit

    Tagging systems open to the public are also open to tag spam. People may apply an excessive number of tags or unrelated tags to an item (such as a YouTube video) in order to attract viewers. This abuse can be mitigated using human or statistical identification of spam items. [48] The number of tags allowed may be limited to reduce spam.

    Some tagging systems provide a single text box to enter tags, so to be able to tokenize the string, a separator must be used. Two popular separators are the space character and the comma. To enable the use of separators in the tags, a system may allow for higher-level separators (such as quotation marks) or escape characters. Systems can avoid the use of separators by allowing only one tag to be added to each input widget at a time, although this makes adding multiple tags more time-consuming.

    Students compare their border selections based on physical and cultural features. They discuss other factors that could impact where borders are established.


    1. Have small groups present and compare borders.

    Remind students that, for the maps they created in Lesson 1, Activity 1, they were asked to draw borders as they saw fit. There are no right or wrong answers. Have students separate into the same small groups from Lesson 1, Activity 1 of this unit and select a spokesperson. Have each spokesperson present their group’s map, along with the reasons for creating borders where they did, including why each group, religion, or physical region was placed there, to the class. List the reasons on the board as students share them. If needed, use the following prompts:

    • How many countries do you have? Why?
    • What did you mostly base your borders on? How did you decide to create your borders?
    • What made drawing the borders challenging?
    • How did the physical features factor into your decision? How might the physical features affect the development of your countries? (Possible response: Mountains and rivers are a key factor because if countries had to split a physical feature between them, each country would try to gain the part that is most valuable, such as freshwater.)
    • How did the cultural features factor into your decision? How might the cultural features affect the development of your countries? (Possible response: Language is a key factor because citizens that speak a certain language within a country will be better able to communicate. If a country has a mix of different cultural characteristics, those characteristics could spread from one culture to another, creating a new culture.)

    2. Discuss factors that impact borders.

    As a class, discuss the reasons listed on the board for why borders were placed in different areas. Ask: What factors were most important? What factors were least important? What information did you think was missing, or would have been helpful to know in order to avoid conflict when creating borders? Ask students to comment about whether they agree or disagree with reasons other students gave. Remind students that there are no right or wrong answers students should discuss their ideas and impressions.

    3. Brainstorm other factors that shape country borders.

    Ask students to brainstorm what else might shape country borders, in addition to the physical and cultural features they examined during this activity. Add students' ideas to the list on the board as they volunteer them. Elicit ideas such as wars between countries, natural resources, or dividing land evenly between different groups.

    4. Have students record ideas to refer to later in this unit.

    Tell students that they will complete a unit of lessons about borders in Europe, and that their ideas about where borders should be placed will be important for their study of Europe. Have each student record the list of factors that shape country borders on a piece of paper to refer to in later lessons, to see if their ideas have changed.

    Informal Assessment

    Evaluate students based on their participation in the whole-class discussion.